Education Commission of the States • 700 Broadway, Suite 1200 • Denver, CO 80203-3460 • 303.299.3600 • Fax: 303.296.8332 • www.ecs.org

Commission on No Child Left Behind (Comm. on NCLB)
NCLB Reauthorization

To better inform the national debate on No Child Left Behind (NCLB) reauthorization, ECS collected and synthesized recommendations by national organizations to improve the federal law.

ECS' database is organized around 16 issue areas that captured most recommendations. Some organizations did not offer recommendations for all issues, at least according to our analysis. And several recommendations appear more than once since they applied to multiple issue areas.

The summary and full text of the Commission on No Child Left Behind's (Comm. NCLB) original recommendations are listed in this report. Please see the main database page for additional reports.

Highlights
Issues addressed: 15 of 16
Adequate Yearly Progress; Assessment, Standards and Curriculum; Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development; Consequences and Interventions; Data Systems and Reporting; Early Childhood; English Language Learners; Finance; High Schools; Other Programs; School Leadership; Students with Disabilities; Supplemental Education Services; Teaching Quality; and Miscellaneous/Overarching.

Issues not addressed: 1 of 16
Safe Schools

Areas of emphasis:
Assessment, Standards and Curriculum; Adequate Yearly Progress; English Language Learners; and Teaching Quality.

Source:
Beyond NCLB: Fulfilling the Promise to Our Nation’s Children (February 2007)


Visit ECS' Database on NCLB Reauthorization main page for more information, explanations and access to organizations' original reports. Please note that ECS plans to expand the database as more information becomes available.

Database Last Updated: July 2007

This database was created and compiled by Mary Fulton, ECS policy analyst.
For questions and comments: 303.299.3679 or mfulton@ecs.org
NCLB Reauthorization : Commission on No Child Left Behind (Comm. NCLB)
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
AYP 1 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to include achievement growth in AYP calculations.
AYP 1 - Full Recommendation Improve the accuracy and fairness of adequate yearly progress (AYP) determinations by allowing states to include achievement growth in AYP calculations. These calculations would enable schools to receive credit for students who are on track to becoming proficient within three years, based on the growth trajectory of their assessment scores.
AYP 2 - Summary of Recommendation Require states to include science assessment results in AYP calculations and set annual science performance objectives.
AYP 2 - Full Recommendation Hold schools accountable for student achievement in science by requiring states to include the results of the science assessments required under NCLB in the AYP calculations of schools and districts. To ensure the gap in science achievement is closed, states would set annual measurable objectives for science that mirror the timeline presently in place for mathematics and reading.
AYP 3 - Summary of Recommendation Require schools to be identified for improvement if miss AYP for same subgroup in same subject for two consecutive years.
AYP 3 - Full Recommendation Require schools to be identified for improvement if they do not make AYP for the same subgroup in the same subject for two consecutive years. This approach would more accurately identify struggling schools.
AYP 4 - Summary of Recommendation Restrict minimum subgroup size to 20 or lower and confidence intervals to 95% or lower, but give education secretary waiver authority.
AYP 4 - Full Recommendation Hold schools accountable for the achievement of all students by restricting the minimum subgroup size to no more than 20 and confidence intervals to no more than 95%. The U.S. Secretary of Education should be given waiver authority to increase the maximum subgroup size to 30 in cases where states can justify such a number.
AYP 5 - Summary of Recommendation Maintain Education Department’s 1% policy on alternative standards and assessments for students with severe cognitive disabilities and reduce cap to 1% of students assessed against modified standards.
AYP 5 - Full Recommendation Improve the rules for including students with disabilities in AYP calculations. Specifically, maintain the U.S. Department of Education’s 1% policy (allowing children with severe cognitive disabilities to be assessed against alternate achievement standards using alternate assessments) and amend the proposed 2% policy (allowing students with disabilities to be assessed against “modified achievement standards”) by reducing the cap to 1%.
AYP 6 - Summary of Recommendation Strengthen procedures for determining which students with disabilities should use alternative assessments and standards or be assessed against modified standards for AYP purposes.
AYP 6 - Full Recommendation Ensure that decisions are made properly and students with disabilities are assessed in the most appropriate manner. These goals should be accomplished by strengthening the procedures for determining which students use alternative assessments and standards or are assessed against modified standards and improving the tools and training available for Individualized Education Program (IEP) teams to make those decisions.
AYP 7 - Summary of Recommendation Extend time period, from two years to three years, that ELL students who have attained English proficiency can remain in ELL subgroup for AYP.
AYP 7 - Full Recommendation Allow schools to more accurately measure the achievement of English language learner (ELL) students by extending the time period, from two years to three years, that ELL students who have attained proficiency in English can remain in the ELL subgroup for AYP purposes.
AYP 8 - Summary of Recommendation Require states to conform to NGA graduation rate compact, hold schools accountable for closing graduation gap, and require schools to disaggregate graduation rate data and "other" AYP indicator.
AYP 8 - Full Recommendation Hold schools accountable for improving the graduation rates of all students by closing the graduation-rate gap by 2014 and requiring states to conform to the National Governors Association compact on graduation rates. Schools should be required to disaggregate graduation-rate data, as well as the elementary school indicator used for AYP purposes (often school attendance), and use this disaggregated data and indicator in AYP calculations.
AYP 9 - Summary of Recommendation Require states to align grade-level tests to track annual student progress.
AYP 9 - Full Recommendation Require states to align grade-level tests to enable the tracking of student progress from year to year.
AYP 10 - Summary of Recommendation Develop national model for standards and tests based on NAEP and give states three participation options for AYP purposes.
AYP 10 - Full Recommendation Raise the bar of expectations for all American children through the development of national model content and performance standards and tests in reading or language arts, mathematics and science based on National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) frameworks. For NCLB accountability purposes, states could adopt the resulting national model standards and tests as their own; build their own assessment instruments based on the national model standards; or keep their existing (or revamped) standards and tests. States choosing the second or third option would have their standards and tests analyzed and compared to the national model.
AYP 11 - Summary of Recommendation Require Secretary of Education to issue reports comparing rigor of state standards to a national model using common metric.
AYP 11 - Full Recommendation Keep the public informed about states’ expectations by requiring the U.S. Secretary of Education to periodically issue reports comparing the rigor of all state standards to the national model using a common metric.
AYP 12 - Summary of Recommendation Require districts with low performing high schools to develop and implement comprehensive improvement plans.
AYP 12 - Full Recommendation Support struggling high schools by requiring districts in which more than half of the high schools did not make AYP—or in which half the students attend high schools that did not make AYP—to develop and implement comprehensive, districtwide high school improvement plans.
AYP 13 - Summary of Recommendation Require a 12th-grade state assessment to determine performance gains, teacher and principal effectiveness and preparation for college and work.
AYP 13 - Full Recommendation Ensure the continuous achievement of high school students by requiring states to administer an additional assessment in grade 12.

This 12th grade assessment will create a useful measure of a high school’s effectiveness in preparing students for life after high school and make possible the inclusion of growth calculations in AYP for high schools and highly qualified and effective teacher (HQET) and highly effective principal (HEP) measurements. This assessment would not be the sole determinant of whether a student graduates and receives a diploma. States can consider awarding college credit in state-supported colleges and universities for students who show mastery of college-level material on this assessment.
Assessment, Standards and Curriculum (ASC)
ASC 1 - Summary of Recommendation Bar Education Department from interfering with state, district or school curriculum or program if it meets ESEA requirements.
ASC 1 - Full Recommendation Bar the U.S. Department of Education from interfering with the selection and use by a state, district or school of a curriculum or program if it meets the requirements outlined in a program funded under the ESEA.
ASC 2 - Summary of Recommendation Maintain and target federal support for developing state assessments to measure progress of all students.
ASC 2 - Full Recommendation Improve the quality of assessments to more accurately measure how all students are progressing by maintaining existing federal support for assessment development and targeting those funds to several new assessment priorities to support this goal.
ASC 3 - Summary of Recommendation Target federal funds to alternate assessments for students with disabilities and ELL students.
ASC 3 - Full Recommendation Target federal funds to creating and implementing alternate assessments for students with disabilities and English language learner (ELL) students.
ASC 4 - Summary of Recommendation Target federal funds to develop high-quality science assessments.
ASC 4 - Full Recommendation Target federal funds to further developing and implementing high-quality science assessments currently required under NCLB.
ASC 5 - Summary of Recommendation Target federal funds to upgrade test delivery and scoring technology for quicker and more accurate data.
ASC 5 - Full Recommendation Target federal funds on upgrading test delivery and scoring technology to yield quicker and more accurate data to districts, parents and schools.
ASC 6 - Summary of Recommendation Allow districts to use Title I funds for formative assessments aligned to state standards to improve instruction. Require such assessments for low-performing schools.
ASC 6 - Full Recommendation Provide teachers and parents with information on student progress throughout the year by permitting districts to use a portion of their Title I funds to develop or acquire and implement high-quality formative assessments aligned to state standards. These assessments would not be used for accountability purposes, but rather as tools to improve instruction to better address student needs. Formative assessments would be required for schools that are identified for improvement.
ASC 7 - Summary of Recommendation Develop state plans for universally designed assessment systems for all types of learners.
ASC 7 - Full Recommendation Offer a more inclusive environment for all types of learners by developing state plans for establishing universally designed assessment systems.
ASC 8 - Summary of Recommendation Require states to align grade-level tests to track student progress.
ASC 8 - Full Recommendation Require states to align grade-level tests to enable the tracking of student progress from year to year.
ASC 9 - Summary of Recommendation Require states to assess academic standards against requirements for success in college, workforce and society.
ASC 9 - Full Recommendation Ensure that students are ready to meet the demands of citizenship, education and work beyond high school by requiring states to assess their reading or language arts, mathematics and science standards against requirements for success in college and in challenging jobs. All states must complete this analysis—in consultation with representatives of higher education and business in their state—within one year of enactment of a reauthorized NCLB to participate in a national summit to be convened by the U.S. Secretary of Education.
ASC 10 - Summary of Recommendation Develop national model for standards and tests based on NAEP and give states three participation options.
ASC 10 - Full Recommendation

Raise the bar of expectations for all American children through the development of national model content and performance standards and tests in reading or language arts, mathematics and science based on National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) frameworks. For NCLB accountability purposes, states could adopt the resulting national model standards and tests as their own; build their own assessment instruments based on the national model standards; or keep their existing (or revamped) standards and tests. States choosing the second or third option would have their standards and tests analyzed and compared to the national model.

ASC 11 - Summary of Recommendation Require Secretary of Education to issue reports comparing rigor of state standards to national model using  common metric.
ASC 11 - Full Recommendation Keep the public informed about states’ expectations by requiring the U.S. Secretary of Education to periodically issue reports comparing the rigor of all state standards to a national model using a common metric.
ASC 12 - Summary of Recommendation Require a 12th-grade state assessment to determine performance gains, teacher and principal effectiveness and preparation for college and work.
ASC 12 - Full Recommendation Ensure the continuous achievement of high school students by requiring states to administer an additional assessment in grade 12.

This 12th grade assessment will create a useful measure of a high school’s effectiveness in preparing students for life after high school and make possible the inclusion of growth calculations in AYP for high schools and Highly Qualified and Effective Teacher (HQET) and Highly Effective Principal (HEP) measurements. This assessment would not be the sole determinant of whether a student graduates and receives a diploma. States can consider awarding college credit in state-supported colleges and universities for students who show mastery of college-level material on this assessment.
ASC 13 - Summary of Recommendation Withhold funding if states do not develop and implement English language proficiency standards, assessments and achievement objectives.
ASC 13 - Full Recommendation Withhold a portion of a state’s administrative funding if that state has not fully developed and implemented English language proficiency standards, assessments and annual measurable achievement objectives.
ASC 14 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to use alternate assessments in academic subjects and English proficiency for ELL students who have been in U.S. schools less than three years.
ASC 14 - Full Recommendation Increase assessment options for English language learner (ELL) students by allowing states to develop and implement alternate assessments in academic subjects and English language proficiency for ELL students who have been in U.S. schools for less than three years.
ASC 15 - Summary of Recommendation Require Education Department to develop common scale for measuring English proficiency.
ASC 15 - Full Recommendation Require the U.S. Department of Education to develop a common scale across states for measuring English proficiency.
ASC 16 - Summary of Recommendation Authorize districts to administer screening assessments to preschool and kindergarten students to identify learning needs.
ASC 16 - Full Recommendation Strengthen the preparation of preschool and kindergarten students by authorizing districts to administer screening assessments to students in preschool (where applicable) and kindergarten. These assessments would identify the learning needs of the students and help teachers and schools make adjustments in instruction, and would not be used for accountability purposes.
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
CIRD 1 - Summary of Recommendation Bolster state and district capacity to help low-performing schools by increasing Title I set aside funds and focusing restructuring on highest-need schools.
CIRD 1 - Full Recommendation Bolster the capacity of states and districts to help low-performing schools by increasing the amount of federal funds set aside by states for school improvement from 4% of Title I funding to 5%, and by allowing districts to focus their restructuring efforts on the lowest-performing 10% of their schools.
CIRD 2 - Summary of Recommendation Double federal research budget and target funds to help schools meet NCLB goals.
CIRD 2 - Full Recommendation Enhance research and development on effective school improvement by doubling the research budget for elementary and secondary education at the Education Department's main research arm, the Institute of Education Sciences. Increased funds should be aimed at research that assists schools in meeting the goals of NCLB.
Consequences and Interventions (CI)
CI 1 - Summary of Recommendation Increase choice options by requiring schools that make AYP to reserve 10% of seats for student transfers and districts to audit available space.
CI 1 - Full Recommendation Increase the availability of public school choice options by requiring schools that make AYP to reserve the equivalent of 10% of their seats for transfers from schools in which students are eligible for choice, and by requiring districts to annually audit the space available for choice transfers. Schools would not be allowed to deny enrollment to students who are geographically assigned to attend those schools.
CI 2 - Summary of Recommendation Require districts unable to accommodate school transfer requests to offer SES to students.
CI 2 - Full Recommendation Ensure that students in struggling schools receive the support they deserve by requiring districts that are unable to accommodate all requests for public school choice to offer supplemental educational services (SES) to otherwise eligible students.
CI 3 - Summary of Recommendation Require schools in corrective action to select comprehensive set of interventions, rather than single option presently required.
CI 3 - Full Recommendation Require schools in corrective action to select a comprehensive set of interventions designed to have a broader impact, rather than the one option required to be selected presently.
CI 4 - Summary of Recommendation Require Education Department to provide further guidance on what constitutes "any other major restructuring option."
CI 4 - Full Recommendation Require the Education Department to provide further guidance to districts on what constitutes the last restructuring option—“any other major restructuring of the school’s governance arrangement that makes fundamental reforms.”
CI 5 - Summary of Recommendation Focus on improving instruction and learning in struggling schools, rather than making district structural changes.
CI 5 - Full Recommendation Take a new systemic, districtwide approach to turning around struggling schools by focusing on improving instruction and learning in schools, rather than making structural changes to the management and operation of districts.
CI 6 - Summary of Recommendation Bolster state and district capacity to help low-performing schools by increasing Title I set aside funds and focusing restructuring on highest-need schools.
CI 6 - Full Recommendation Bolster the capacity of states and districts to help low-performing schools by increasing the amount of federal funds set aside by states for school improvement from 4% of Title I funding to 5%, and by allowing districts to focus their restructuring efforts on the lowest-performing 10% of their schools.
CI 7 - Summary of Recommendation Give schools full school year to implement interventions before moving to next level of consequences, and remove schools from improvement status once restructuring is implemented.
CI 7 - Full Recommendation Give schools adequate time to implement corrective actions and restructuring options by ensuring that identified schools have a full school year to implement the required interventions before moving to the next level of NCLB’s school improvement process. In addition, once a significant restructuring action is implemented in a school, the school would no longer be identified for school improvement.
CI 8 - Summary of Recommendation Require districts to adopt comprehensive improvement plans if more than half of high schools miss AYP.
CI 8 - Full Recommendation Support struggling high schools by requiring districts in which more than half of the high schools did not make AYP—or in which half the students attend high schools that did not make AYP—to develop and implement comprehensive, districtwide high school improvement plans.
CI 9 - Summary of Recommendation Require districts to identify point of contact for parents on supplemental services and school choice.
CI 9 - Full Recommendation Require districts to identify and publicize a person or office that would operate as a point of contact on supplemental services (SES) and public school choice. This would simplifying the process for parents seeking to learn about options for their children.
Data Systems and Reporting (DSR)
DSR 1 - Summary of Recommendation Require states to conform to NGA graduation rate compact, hold schools accountable for closing graduation gap and require schools to disaggregate graduation rate data and "other" AYP indicator.
DSR 1 - Full Recommendation Hold schools accountable for improving the graduation rates of all students by closing the graduation-rate gap by 2014 and requiring states to conform to the National Governors Association compact on graduation rates. Require schools to disaggregate graduation-rate data, as well as the elementary school indicator used for AYP purposes (often school attendance), and use this disaggregated data and indicator in AYP calculations.
DSR 2 - Summary of Recommendation Target federal funds on upgrading test delivery and scoring technology for quicker and more accurate data.
DSR 2 - Full Recommendation Target federal funds on upgrading test delivery and scoring technology to yield quicker and more accurate data to districts, parents and schools.
DSR 3 - Summary of Recommendation Require states to include additional information in their annual report cards related to student performance, graduation rates and to teachers and principals.
DSR 3 - Full Recommendation Provide useful and actionable information on school quality by requiring states to include additional information in their annual report cards. The report cards should include student attendance rates; the attendance and turnover rates for teachers and principals; graduation rates disaggregated by racial and ethnic groups, special education status and English language learner status; and the percentage of students in high-level courses.
DSR 4 - Summary of Recommendation Require states to develop high-quality longitudinal data systems and provide professional development for users. States with existing systems must meet specific data element requirements.
DSR 4 - Full Recommendation Require all states to design and implement a high-quality longitudinal data system within four years of the enactment of a reauthorized NCLB, and to provide professional development for all individuals who use and maintain these systems.

Such data systems are needed to implement the recommendations in this report—in particular, the proposals to include student growth in AYP calculations and to determine whether teachers and principals are “effective.” States that had systems operating before a reauthorized NCLB will be permitted to use these systems if they meet specific data elements required under the statute.
DSR 5 - Summary of Recommendation Increase Institute of Education Sciences’ longitudinal data systems grant program to assist with state data systems.
DSR 5 - Full Recommendation Assist states in the development, implementation and ongoing support of sufficient data systems by increasing the Institute of Education Sciences’ longitudinal data systems grant program by an additional $100 million a year for four years.
DSR 6 - Summary of Recommendation Require states to submit independent audit reports certifying their data systems meet high-quality requirements.
DSR 6 - Full Recommendation Ensure that all states’ data systems are fully implemented and capable of being used in the manner and spirit the Commission envisioned by requiring states, upon the completion of development and implementation of their data systems, to submit an audit report by an independent entity that certifies that these systems meet requirements.
DSR 7 - Summary of Recommendation Implement and require regular reporting of Education Department's system to track migrant student health and education records.
DSR 7 - Full Recommendation Strengthen the tracking of the health and education records of migrant students by ensuring the complete and timely implementation of the new Education Department effort to link state systems, and by requiring the department to report to Congress every two years on the linkage system’s implementation and operation, as well as recommendations for system improvement.
DSR 8 - Summary of Recommendation Require states to submit counts of migrant children and document accuracy of data, which should be audited by Education Department.
DSR 8 - Full Recommendation Require states to submit, along with their counts of migrant children, documentation on the accuracy of these counts. The Education Department would annually select a small number of states to audit to determine the accuracy of these migrant student counts.
Early Childhood Education (ECE)
ECE 1 - Summary of Recommendation Authorize districts to administer screening assessments to preschool and kindergarten students to identify learning needs.
ECE 1 - Full Recommendation Strengthen the preparation of preschool and kindergarten students by authorizing districts to administer screening assessments to students in preschool (where applicable) and kindergarten. These assessments would identify the learning needs of the students and help teachers and schools make adjustments in instruction, and would not be used for accountability purposes.
English Language Learners (ELL)
ELL 1 - Summary of Recommendation Extend time period, from two years to three years, that ELL students who have attained English proficiency to remain in the ELL subgroup for AYP.
ELL 1 - Full Recommendation Allow schools to more accurately measure the achievement of English language learner (ELL) students by extending the time period, from two years to three years, that ELL students who have attained proficiency in English can remain in the ELL subgroup for AYP purposes.
ELL 2 - Summary of Recommendation Target federal funds to alternate assessments for students with disabilities and ELL students.
ELL 2 - Full Recommendation Target federal funds to creating and implementing alternate assessments for students with disabilities and English language learner (ELL) students.
ELL 3 - Summary of Recommendation Withhold funding if states do not develop and implement English language proficiency standards, assessments and achievement objectives.
ELL 3 - Full Recommendation Withhold a portion of a state’s administrative funding if that state has not fully developed and implemented English language proficiency standards, assessments and annual measurable achievement objectives.
ELL 4 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to use alternate assessments in academic subjects and English proficiency for ELL students who have been in U.S. schools less than three years.
ELL 4 - Full Recommendation Increase assessment options for English language learner (ELL) students by allowing states to develop and implement alternate assessments in academic subjects and English language proficiency for ELL students who have been in U.S. schools for less than three years.
ELL 5 - Summary of Recommendation Require Education Department to develop common scale for measuring English proficiency.
ELL 5 - Full Recommendation Require Education Department to develop a common scale across states for measuring English proficiency.
ELL 6 - Summary of Recommendation Require states to establish teacher certification endorsement for those spending more than 25% of time instructing ELL students.
ELL 6 - Full Recommendation

Ensure that individuals who teach English language learners receive the training and support they need by requiring states to establish an endorsement for teacher certification for those who spend more than 25% of their teaching time providing instruction to English language learners.

ELL 7 - Summary of Recommendation Implement and require regular reporting of Education Department's system to track migrant student health and education records. 
ELL 7 - Full Recommendation Strengthening the tracking of the health and education records of migrant students by ensuring the complete and timely implementation of the new Education Department effort to link state systems, and by requiring the Department to report to Congress every two years on the linkage system’s implementation and operation, as well as recommendations for system improvement.
ELL 8 - Summary of Recommendation Give priority assistance to migrant students who are low achieving, mobile or disabled.
ELL 8 - Full Recommendation Support migrant students who are most in need by giving priority for migrant student assistance to children who are achieving below state standards, have the highest degree of mobility or are disabled.
ELL 9 - Summary of Recommendation Ensure migrant students with disabilities receive evaluations and services under IDEA.
ELL 9 - Full Recommendation Ensure migrant students with disabilities receive the evaluations and services to which they are entitled under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act.
ELL 10 - Summary of Recommendation Require states to submit counts of migrant children and document accuracy of data, which should be audited by Education Department.
ELL 10 - Full Recommendation Require states to submit, along with their counts of migrant children, documentation on the accuracy of these counts. The Education Department would annually select a small number of states to audit to determine the accuracy of these migrant student counts.
ELL 11 - Summary of Recommendation Expand qualifications for migrant workers, therefore, allowing their children to qualify for migrant educational programs.
ELL 11 - Full Recommendation Eliminate the dual system of classification that has developed in many parts of the country by allowing individuals to qualify as migrant workers (and therefore allowing their children to qualify for migrant educational program services) if they work in an employment field that qualifies them as migrant workers, regardless of their original intent in seeking employment.
ELL 12 - Summary of Recommendation Require Education Department to coordinate migrant services with Departments of Labor and Health and Human Services.
ELL 12 - Full Recommendation Minimize gaps in services by requiring the Education Department to coordinate services funded under Title I, Part C, with migrant services provided by the U.S. Department of Labor and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Funding Issues (FI)
FI 1 - Summary of Recommendation Allow districts to reserve 1% of SES funds for administration.
FI 1 - Full Recommendation Strengthen the administrative support for districts to operate supplemental education service (SES) programs effectively by allowing them to reserve 1% of the funds expended on SES for administration.
FI 2 - Summary of Recommendation Bolster state and district capacity to help low-performing schools by increasing Title I set aside funds and focusing restructuring on highest-need schools.
FI 2 - Full Recommendation Bolster the capacity of states and districts to help low-performing schools by increasing the amount of federal funds set aside by states for school improvement from 4% of Title I funding to 5%, and by allowing districts to focus their restructuring efforts on the lowest-performing 10% of their schools.
FI 3 - Summary of Recommendation Withhold funding if states do not develop and implement English language proficiency standards, assessments and achievement objectives.
FI 3 - Full Recommendation Withhold a portion of a state’s administrative funding if that state has not fully developed and implemented English language proficiency standards, assessments and annual measurable achievement objectives.
High Schools (HS)
HS 1 - Summary of Recommendation Require states to conform to NGA graduation rate compact, hold schools accountable for closing graduation gaps and require schools to disaggregate graduation rate data and "other" AYP indicator.
HS 1 - Full Recommendation Hold schools accountable for improving the graduation rates of all students by closing the graduation-rate gap by 2014 and requiring states to conform to the National Governors Association compact on graduation rates.  Require schools to disaggregate graduation-rate data, as well as the elementary school indicator used for AYP purposes (often school attendance), and use this disaggregated data and indicator in AYP calculations.
HS 2 - Summary of Recommendation Require districts with low performing high schools to develop and implement comprehensive improvement plans.
HS 2 - Full Recommendation Support struggling high schools by requiring districts in which more than half of the high schools did not make AYP—or in which half the students attend high schools that did not make AYP—to develop and implement comprehensive, districtwide high school improvement plans.
HS 3 - Summary of Recommendation Require a 12th-grade state assessment to determine performance gains, teacher and principal effectiveness and preparation for college and work.
HS 3 - Full Recommendation Ensure the continuous achievement of high school students by requiring states to administer an additional assessment in grade 12.

This 12th grade assessment will create a useful measure of a high school’s effectiveness in preparing students for life after high school and make possible the inclusion of growth calculations in AYP for high schools and Highly Qualified and Effective Teacher (HQET) and Highly Effective Principal (HEP) measurements. This assessment would not be the sole determinant of whether a student graduates and receives a diploma. States can consider awarding college credit in state-supported colleges and universities for students who show mastery of college-level material on this assessment.
Other Programs (OP)
OP 1 - Summary of Recommendation Require schools to determine availability of social and mental health services when developing improvement plans.
OP 1 - Full Recommendation Address students’ behavioral and social needs by requiring schools to determine the availability of social services and mental health services when developing the school’s improvement plan.
Safe Schools (SS)
SS 1 - Summary of Recommendation No recommendations identified for this issue.
School Leadership (SL)
SL 1 - Summary of Recommendation Establish definition of Highly Effective Principal (HEP) and require all principals in Title I schools to meet requirements.
SL 1 - Full Recommendation Enhance school leadership by establishing a definition of a Highly Effective Principal (HEP). This requires principals to obtain certification or licensure as required in their state, demonstrate the necessary skills for effectively leading a school and, most importantly, produce improvements in student achievement that are comparable to high-achieving schools made up of student populations with similar challenges. All principals should meet this new definition, but it would be required for those working in a Title I school.
SL 2 - Summary of Recommendation Require districts in need of improvement to dedicate portion of Title I funds to principal professional development.
SL 2 - Full Recommendation Improve the quality and quantity of professional development for school leaders by requiring districts in need of improvement to dedicate a portion of their Title I funds to the professional development of principals.
SL 3 - Summary of Recommendation Focus teacher and principal professional development funding on activities proven to strengthen teacher instruction.
SL 3 - Full Recommendation Focus No Child Left Behind's (NCLB) specific teacher and principal professional development funding—Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)—on activities that are proven to strengthen the ability of teachers to provide better instruction.
SL 4 - Summary of Recommendation Include principals in needs assessments for teachers and principals before allocating Title II funds.
SL 4 - Full Recommendation Identify the needs of both principals and teachers more accurately by requiring principals to be included in the needs assessment conducted before allocating Title II funding.
SL 5 - Summary of Recommendation Allow principals in Title I schools to refuse transfer of teachers who are not highly qualified or effective.
SL 5 - Full Recommendation Grant principals in Title I schools the ability to refuse the transfer of a teacher into his or her school if that teacher has not obtained Highly Qualified Teacher (HQT) or Highly Qualified and Effective Teacher (HQET) status. Giving principals more control over who teaches in their school will empower them to build a qualified, effective and cohesive team of teachers.
SL 6 - Summary of Recommendation Require a 12th-grade state assessment to determine performance gains, teacher and principal effectiveness and preparation for college and work.
SL 6 - Full Recommendation Ensure the continuous achievement of high school students by requiring states to administer an additional assessment in grade 12.

This 12th grade assessment will create a useful measure of a high school’s effectiveness in preparing students for life after high school and make possible the inclusion of growth calculations in AYP for high schools and Highly Qualified and Effective Teacher (HQET) and Highly Effective Principal (HEP) measurements. This assessment would not be the sole determinant of whether a student graduates and receives a diploma. States can consider awarding college credit in state-supported colleges and universities for students who show mastery of college-level material on this assessment.
Students with Disabilities (SWD)
SWD 1 - Summary of Recommendation Maintain Education Department’s 1% policy on alternative standards and assessments for students with severe cognitive disabilities and reduce cap to 1% of students assessed against modified standards.
SWD 1 - Full Recommendation Improve the rules for including students with disabilities in AYP calculations. Specifically, we recommend maintaining the U.S. Department of Education’s 1% policy (allowing children with severe cognitive disabilities to be assessed against alternate achievement standards using alternate assessments) and amending the proposed 2% policy (allowing students with disabilities to be assessed against “modified achievement standards”) by reducing the cap to 1%.
SWD 2 - Summary of Recommendation Strengthen procedures for determining which students with disabilities should use alternative assessments and standards or be assessed against modified standards.
SWD 2 - Full Recommendation Ensure that decisions are made properly and children with disabilities are assessed in the most appropriate manner by strengthening the procedures for determining which children are included in the above categories and improving the tools and training available for Individualized Education Program (IEP) teams to make those decisions.
SWD 3 - Summary of Recommendation Target federal funds to alternate assessments for students with disabilities and ELL students.
SWD 3 - Full Recommendation Target federal funds for creating and implementing alternate assessments for students with disabilities and English language learner (ELL) students.
SWD 4 - Summary of Recommendation Ensure migrant students with disabilities receive evaluations and services under IDEA.
SWD 4 - Full Recommendation Ensure migrant students with disabilities receive the evaluations and services to which they are entitled under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act.
Supplemental Education Services (SES)
SES 1 - Summary of Recommendation Require districts unable to accommodate school transfer requests to offer SES to students.
SES 1 - Full Recommendation Ensure that students in struggling schools receive the support they deserve by requiring districts that are unable to accommodate all requests for public school choice to offer supplemental educational services (SES) to otherwise eligible students.
SES 2 - Summary of Recommendation Improve access to SES by requiring districts to offer space in school facilities for private providers if offered to other entities.
SES 2 - Full Recommendation Improve access to supplemental education services (SES) providers by requiring districts to offer space in school facilities for private providers of SES if they offer the use of school facilities to other non-school-affiliated entities.
SES 3 - Summary of Recommendation Expand SES enrollment opportunities and allow districts to form consortiums to improve supplemental services.
SES 3 - Full Recommendation Provide enrollment periods for supplemental education services several times a year and allow districts to form consortiums to better inform parents and provide SES to students.
SES 4 - Summary of Recommendation Allow districts to reserve 1% of SES funds for administration.
SES 4 - Full Recommendation Strengthen the administrative support for districts to operate supplemental education service programs effectively by allowing them to reserve 1% of the funds expended on SES for administration.
SES 5 - Summary of Recommendation Require districts to establish a point of contact for parents on SES and public school choice.
SES 5 - Full Recommendation Simplify the process for parents seeking to learn about options for their children by requiring districts to identify and publicize a person or office that would operate as a point of contact on supplemental education services (SES) and public school choice.
SES 6 - Summary of Recommendation Require states and Education Department to evaluate impact of SES providers on student achievement.
SES 6 - Full Recommendation Ensure that supplemental education services (SES) providers are effective in producing student learning gains by requiring states to evaluate the impact of their SES providers on the achievement of children, and by requiring the Education Department to use a portion of Title I funding to study the nationwide effects of SES on student achievement.
Teaching Quality (TQ)
TQ 1 - Summary of Recommendation Assess teacher quality on effectiveness to raise student achievement rather than just on qualifications, and change definition to Highly Qualified and Effective Teacher (HQET).
TQ 1 - Full Recommendation Assess the quality of teachers based on their effectiveness in raising student achievement rather than just by their qualifications for entering the classroom. This requires all teachers to produce student learning gains and receive positive principal or teacher peer review evaluations to meet the new definition of a Highly Qualified and Effective Teacher (HQET).
TQ 2 - Summary of Recommendation

Guarantee professional development to teachers at risk of not attaining new Highly Qualified and Effective Teacher (HQET) status.

TQ 2 - Full Recommendation Give guaranteed professional development to teachers who need it most. Teachers who, after two years, are at risk of not attaining the new Highly Qualified and Effective (HQET) status will receive high-quality professional development specifically designed to address their needs.
TQ 3 - Summary of Recommendation Focus teacher and principal professional development funding on activities proven to strengthen teacher instruction.
TQ 3 - Full Recommendation Focus No Child Left Behind’s (NCLB) specific teacher and principal professional development funding—Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)—on activities that are proven to strengthen the ability of teachers to provide better instruction.
TQ 4 - Summary of Recommendation

Include principals in needs assessments for teachers and principals before allocating Title II funds.

TQ 4 - Full Recommendation Identify needs of principals and teachers more accurately by requiring principals to be included in the needs assessment conducted before allocating Title II funding.
TQ 5 - Summary of Recommendation

Require all schools to have similar expenditures for teacher salaries and comparable numbers of Highly Qualified and Effective Teachers (HQET).

TQ 5 - Full Recommendation Ensure quality teachers for all students by requiring that all schools—Title I and non-Title I—have similar expenditures for teacher salaries and comparable numbers of Highly Qualified and Effective Teachers (HQET).
TQ 6 - Summary of Recommendation Allow principals in Title I schools to refuse transfer of teachers who are not highly qualified and effective.
TQ 6 - Full Recommendation Grant principals in Title I schools the ability to refuse the transfer of a teacher into his or her school if that teacher has not obtained Highly Qualified Teacher (HQT) or Highly Qualified and Effective (HQET) status. Give principals more control over who teaches in their school will empower them to build a qualified, effective and cohesive team of teachers.
TQ 7 - Summary of Recommendation Require higher education institutions to set goals for increasing teacher graduates for shortage areas.
TQ 7 - Full Recommendation Require institutions of higher education to establish goals for increasing the number of graduates qualified to teach in shortage areas.
TQ 8 - Summary of Recommendation

Require higher education institutions to set goals for linking instruction with needs of schools and demands teachers will face.

TQ 8 - Full Recommendation Prepare teachers well by requiring institutions of higher education to set goals for linking their instruction with the needs of schools and the demands new teachers will face in the classroom.
TQ 9 - Summary of Recommendation Require districts with high teacher turnover to develop comprehensive plans to recruit and retain effective teachers, including from nontraditional routes.
TQ 9 - Full Recommendation Require school districts with high rates of teacher turnover to develop plans to recruit and retain effective teachers—including individuals from nontraditional routes. These plans would require districts to consider how to effectively mentor new teachers, use bonus pay to attract the most successful teachers and those in subject shortage areas, improve working conditions and develop multiple career paths.
TQ 10 - Summary of Recommendation

Create incentives for certification and licensing reciprocity agreements across states and study pension portability.

TQ 10 - Full Recommendation

Remove barriers for teachers who wish to teach in other states by creating incentives for states to make certification and licensing reciprocal across states, and by conducting a study of pension portability.

TQ 11 - Summary of Recommendation Require a 12th-grade state assessment to determine performance gains, teacher and principal effectiveness and preparation for college and work.
TQ 11 - Full Recommendation Ensure continuous achievement of high school students by requiring states to administer an additional assessment in grade 12.

This 12th grade assessment will create a useful measure of a high school’s effectiveness in preparing students for life after high school and make possible the inclusion of growth calculations in AYP for high schools and Highly Qualified and Effective measurements for high school teachers and principals. This assessment would not be the sole determinant of whether a student graduates and receives a diploma. States can consider awarding college credit in state-supported colleges and universities for students who show mastery of college-level material on this assessment.
TQ 12 - Summary of Recommendation

Require states to establish teacher certification endorsement for those spending more than 25% of time instructing ELL students.

TQ 12 - Full Recommendation Ensure that individuals who teach English language learner (ELL) students receive the training and support they need by requiring states to establish an endorsement for teacher certification for those who spend more than 25% of their teaching time providing instruction to ELL students.
Miscellaneous/Overarching (Misc.)
Misc. 1 - Summary of Recommendation Allow parents and others to hold districts, states and the Education Department accountable for implementing NCLB.
Misc. 1 - Full Recommendation Allow parents and other concerned parties to hold districts, states and the Department of Education accountable for faithfully implementing the requirements of NCLB through enhanced enforcement options with the state and the Department.



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