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Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
Summary of Recommendations
NCLB Reauthorization

To better inform the national debate on No Child Left Behind (NCLB) reauthorization, ECS collected and synthesized recommendations by national organizations to improve the federal law.

ECS' database is organized around 16 issue areas that captured most recommendations. Some organizations did not offer recommendations for all issues, at least according to our analysis. And several recommendations appear more than once since they applied to multiple issue areas.

The summary of all organizations' original recommendations for Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) are listed in this report. Please see the main database page for additional reports.

Highlights
(See Abbreviation Key at end of table)

Organizations that addressed this issue: 15 of 15
AASA; AFT; BCSA; Comm. NCLB; CCSSO; ECS; Ed Trust; FEA; NAESP; NASBE; NASSP; NCSL; NEA; NGA; and NSBA

Organizations that did not address this issue: None

Comments
Not only did every organization suggest ways to improve adequate yearly progress (AYP), but this NCLB provision received more recommendations than any other issue, according to ECS' analysis.

All organizations proposed the use of "growth models" to calculate AYP, a method which would recognize and reward student and school progress toward meeting annual performance targets. Currently, schools either "hit or miss" AYP targets, and only receive credit for student gains under the somewhat confusing Safe Harbor provision.

Most organizations also called for greater flexibility for students with disabilities and English Language Learners (ELL). The recommendations focused on allowing these students to be counted in their respective subgroups for longer periods of time and tailoring achievement goals based on individual needs.

Lastly, about half the organizations suggested that AYP calculations should factor in "multiple measures" so as to lessen the emphasis on standardized tests.



Visit ECS' Database on NCLB Reauthorization main page for more information, explanations and access to organizations' original reports. Please note that ECS plans to expand the database as more information becomes available.

Database Last Updated: July 2007

This database was created and compiled by Mary Fulton, ECS policy analyst.
For questions and comments: 303.299.3679 or mfulton@ecs.org
NCLB Reauthorization : American Association of School Administrators (AASA)
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
AYP 1 - Summary of Recommendation Establish evaluation scales to measure success/failure toward performance standards.
AYP 2 - Summary of Recommendation Vertically align state standards and allow use of AYP or benchmarks to measure student progress toward growth expectations that are based on sample of student progress. 
AYP 3 - Summary of Recommendation Judge school/district success based on Title I student achievement.
AYP 4 - Summary of Recommendation Permit use of growth or status models to judge school/district success.
AYP 5 - Summary of Recommendation Identify struggling schools on continuum of success, target assistance to highest need students and tailor accountability systems to needs of students with disabilities and ELL students.
AYP 6 - Summary of Recommendation Permit use of local accountability system if more accurately measures successful instruction.
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : American Federation of Teachers (AFT)
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
AYP 1 - Summary of Recommendation Give credit for school progress and/or proficiency under AYP.
AYP 2 - Summary of Recommendation Distinguish truly struggling schools from those that need limited assistance under AYP.
AYP 3 - Summary of Recommendation Require states to develop “learning environment index” for schools and mandate states and districts to address problem areas.
AYP 4 - Summary of Recommendation Offer grants for states to develop common standards, curriculum and assessments for more consistency in proficiency and growth definitions.
AYP 5 - Summary of Recommendation Ensure state accountability systems fairly and accurately measure student progress and achievement.
AYP 6 - Summary of Recommendation Maintain disaggregated student achievement reports, but change numerous ways to fail and only one way to “make” AYP.
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : Business Coalition for Student Achievement (BCSA)
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
AYP 1 - Summary of Recommendation

Hold high schools accountable for increasing the graduation rate, using a common definition, and graduating students ready for college and work.

AYP 2 - Summary of Recommendation

Add science to AYP and support state participation in NAEP science assessments.

AYP 3 - Summary of Recommendation Provide guidance on differentiating degree to which and reasons schools/districts miss AYP and focus resources on those with highest need.
AYP 4 - Summary of Recommendation Allow year-to-year growth and other methods for measuring student achievement toward proficiency.
AYP 5 - Summary of Recommendation Close loopholes allowing states to “game” NCLB accountability and undermine school restructuring.
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : Commission on No Child Left Behind (Comm. NCLB)
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
AYP 1 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to include achievement growth in AYP calculations.
AYP 2 - Summary of Recommendation Require states to include science assessment results in AYP calculations and set annual science performance objectives.
AYP 3 - Summary of Recommendation Require schools to be identified for improvement if miss AYP for same subgroup in same subject for two consecutive years.
AYP 4 - Summary of Recommendation Restrict minimum subgroup size to 20 or lower and confidence intervals to 95% or lower, but give education secretary waiver authority.
AYP 5 - Summary of Recommendation Maintain Education Department’s 1% policy on alternative standards and assessments for students with severe cognitive disabilities and reduce cap to 1% of students assessed against modified standards.
AYP 6 - Summary of Recommendation Strengthen procedures for determining which students with disabilities should use alternative assessments and standards or be assessed against modified standards for AYP purposes.
AYP 7 - Summary of Recommendation Extend time period, from two years to three years, that ELL students who have attained English proficiency can remain in ELL subgroup for AYP.
AYP 8 - Summary of Recommendation Require states to conform to NGA graduation rate compact, hold schools accountable for closing graduation gap, and require schools to disaggregate graduation rate data and "other" AYP indicator.
AYP 9 - Summary of Recommendation Require states to align grade-level tests to track annual student progress.
AYP 10 - Summary of Recommendation Develop national model for standards and tests based on NAEP and give states three participation options for AYP purposes.
AYP 11 - Summary of Recommendation Require Secretary of Education to issue reports comparing rigor of state standards to a national model using common metric.
AYP 12 - Summary of Recommendation Require districts with low performing high schools to develop and implement comprehensive improvement plans.
AYP 13 - Summary of Recommendation Require a 12th-grade state assessment to determine performance gains, teacher and principal effectiveness and preparation for college and work.
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO)
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
AYP 1 - Summary of Recommendation Encourage use of various accountability models focused on individual student achievement to promote more valid and meaningful determinations.
AYP 2 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to use growth models to complement status measures for AYP.
AYP 3 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to use additional school performance data to differentiate AYP determinations and consequences.
AYP 4 - Summary of Recommendation Include students with disabilities in state assessment and accountability systems based on ambitious but educationally sound goals and measures.
AYP 5 - Summary of Recommendation Continue to count students with disabilities' performance in that AYP subgroup for appropriate period once they transfer out.
AYP 6 - Summary of Recommendation Include ELL students in state assessment and accountability systems based on ambitious but educationally sound measures and goals.
AYP 7 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to include new immigrant ELL students in school accountability based on multiple measures for at least 3 years.
AYP 8 - Summary of Recommendation Allow full range of alternate assessments and value individualized growth of ELL students.
AYP 9 - Summary of Recommendation Continue to count ELL student performance in this AYP subgroup for appropriate period once they transfer out.
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : Education Commission of the States (ECS)
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
AYP 1 - Summary of Recommendation Ensure NCLB focuses on the performance growth of all -- not just low-performing -- students.
AYP 2 - Summary of Recommendation Reassess AYP to ensure it measures school and district effects on student progress over time.
AYP 3 - Summary of Recommendation Maintain goal of 100% proficiency by 2013-14 and ensure states support this objective, despite number of schools in improvement.
AYP 4 - Summary of Recommendation Initiate independent AYP assessment to determine meaningful definition and measurement of student growth.
AYP 5 - Summary of Recommendation Expand AYP exemptions in rural states regarding alternative assessments for students with disabilities.
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : Education Trust (Ed Trust)
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
AYP 1 - Summary of Recommendation Consider disaggregated high school graduation rates as AYP indicator equal with achievement indicators.
AYP 2 - Summary of Recommendation Require high schools/districts with graduation rates of less than 90% to increase overall rates and reduce gaps between groups.  
AYP 3 - Summary of Recommendation Provide options to measure AYP, including growth models and college- and career-ready level standards. Require states to adopt subgroup “n” size no greater than 30 and confidence intervals no greater than 95%.
AYP 4 - Summary of Recommendation Require states with high discrepancies of students scoring proficient on statewide tests vs. NAEP to increase by 50% the percentage of students reaching “advanced/exceeds proficient” level on state assessments by 2014.
AYP 5 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to use growth models for AYP, but require states to have sophisticated data systems, stable assessment systems, student progress targets and comprehensive high school assessments. 
AYP 6 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to use achievement of college- and career-ready standards as alternative measure for AYP as long as states meet several specified requirements. States that raise these standards would be allowed to adjust AYP timelines and targets.
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : Forum on Educational Accountability (FEA)
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
AYP 1 - Summary of Recommendation Replace NCLB proficiency targets with ones based on success of effective public schools.
AYP 2 - Summary of Recommendation Allow growth measures and pre-determined proficiency levels for AYP calculations.
AYP 3 - Summary of Recommendation Use multiple indicators of student achievement in addition to standardized tests.
AYP 4 - Summary of Recommendation Fund R&D for more effective accountability systems that improve student achievement.
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP)
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
AYP 1 - Summary of Recommendation Require state assessments to use growth model to show student and subgroup progress.
AYP 2 - Summary of Recommendation Require assessments to use multiple measures of student progress and achievement.
AYP 3 - Summary of Recommendation Require accountability systems to measure school success and inform changes to increase student achievement.
AYP 4 - Summary of Recommendation Factor scores of students belonging to multiple subgroups into only one subgroup for AYP.
AYP 5 - Summary of Recommendation Include students with disabilities' IEP achievement goals in student/school success determinations for AYP.
AYP 6 - Summary of Recommendation Use growth models to assess student with disabilities' achievement for AYP.
AYP 7 - Summary of Recommendation Use growth model to assess ELL student achievement for AYP.
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : National Association of State Boards of Education (NASBE)
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
AYP 1 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to use multiple indicators to evaluate student, school and system performance.
AYP 2 - Summary of Recommendation Defer to state assessment and accountability systems, unless federal officials have good cause to do otherwise.
AYP 3 - Summary of Recommendation Hold schools accountable for the performance of all students.  
AYP 4 - Summary of Recommendation Base accountability requirements on multiple measures to produce meaningful, valid results.
AYP 5 - Summary of Recommendation Allow all states to use growth models for AYP. 
AYP 6 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to use English proficiency attainment to hold schools/districts accountable for ELL students.
AYP 7 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to count students with disabilities in AYP who successfully complete their IEPs.
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP)
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
AYP 1 - Summary of Recommendation Require Education Department to review state accountability plans to improve AYP data consistency through confidence intervals, subgroup size and full academic year considerations.
AYP 2 - Summary of Recommendation Require all public schools, charter schools and nonpublic schools receiving federal funds to use state assessments and AYP criteria.
AYP 3 - Summary of Recommendation Extend graduation rate to within five years of entering high school.
AYP 4 - Summary of Recommendation Incorporate ELL student scores in AYP determination after they develop English language proficiency.
AYP 5 - Summary of Recommendation Base AYP on multiple assessment results and multiple opportunities to retake state tests.
AYP 6 - Summary of Recommendation Expand Safe Harbor definition to include demonstrated improvement, applied to all required reporting areas.
AYP 7 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to use growth formulas to calculate AYP.
AYP 8 - Summary of Recommendation Expand alternative assessments for students with disabilities that are counted for AYP.
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL)
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
AYP 1 - Summary of Recommendation Ensure federal programs emphasize narrowing achievement gaps and achieving proficiency, and not intrude on state processes. Acknowledge and reward state accountability plans that meet NCLB spirit and goals.
AYP 2 - Summary of Recommendation Ensure state accountability plan approvals, amendments and waivers are uniform, transparent, deliberate, prompt and made public.
AYP 3 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to use student growth approach to calculate AYP.
AYP 4 - Summary of Recommendation Allow use of multiple measures to evaluate performance for AYP. 
AYP 5 - Summary of Recommendation Publicize states' option to average two or three years of data to calculate percentage of students scoring proficient and identify schools in need of improvement.
AYP 6 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to use their accountability system to comply with spirit of NCLB. Base systems on realistic, not aspirational proficiency goals.
AYP 7 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to identify schools for improvement only after AYP targets in same subjects and subgroup are missed for two consecutive years. Require Education Department to clarify option to identify schools only after miss AYP targets in same subject in two consecutive years.
AYP 8 - Summary of Recommendation Ensure states know option of identifying districts as “in need of improvement” only when they miss AYP in same subject across multiple grade spans for two consecutive years.

AYP 9 - Summary of Recommendation Include students in multiple subgroups for reporting diagnostic data, but in smallest subgroup they belong for AYP purposes.

AYP 10 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to develop basis for determining school/district assessment participation rates for AYP purposes. For example, based on average daily attendance.

AYP 11 - Summary of Recommendation Afford states flexibility with AYP graduation rate for students pursuing alternative paths to diploma and for including students with disabilities.
AYP 12 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to set separate starting points and AYP projection paths for students with disabilities.
AYP 13 - Summary of Recommendation Publicize states' option of setting different “n” sizes for student subgroups, such as students with disabilities, for AYP and reporting purposes.
AYP 14 - Summary of Recommendation

Give states flexibility to determine when to hold schools accountable for including ELL students in AYP.

AYP 15 - Summary of Recommendation Publicize states' option of setting different “n” sizes for ELL student subgroups for AYP purposes.
AYP 16 - Summary of Recommendation Reevaluate 100% proficiency expectation for all students under AYP. This goal is not achievable and places states at risk of litigation.
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : National Education Association (NEA)
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
AYP 1 - Summary of Recommendation Base AYP on multiple measures of student learning and school success.
AYP 2 - Summary of Recommendation Give states flexibility with accountability systems and which grades to test.
AYP 3 - Summary of Recommendation Allow use of growth models to measure progress, but not to penalize schools.
AYP 4 - Summary of Recommendation Ensure assessment and accountability systems align with standards and curricula, improve student learning and do not narrow curricula.
AYP 5 - Summary of Recommendation Apply accountability systems to high schools without increasing dropout rates.
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : National Governors Association (NGA)
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
AYP 1 - Summary of Recommendation Determine accountability measures at the state level, not the federal level.
AYP 2 - Summary of Recommendation Use voluntary value-added or growth models to determine AYP.
AYP 3 - Summary of Recommendation Provide flexibility in AYP to give ELL students time to overcome language barriers and make academic gains. Ensure ELL gains are reflected in school data.
AYP 4 - Summary of Recommendation Refine AYP to reflect the academic progress of students with disabilities.
AYP 5 - Summary of Recommendation Prevent use of NAEP as state proficiency measurement, substitute for state assessment or for rewards/sanctions; consult with governors before mandating 12th grade NAEP assessment; and ensure NAEP expenses are reimbursed.
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : National School Boards Association (NSBA)
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
AYP 1 - Summary of Recommendation Allow larger student subgroup “n” sizes for districts than schools and a group's “n” size to increase to reflect school’s total enrollment.
AYP 2 - Summary of Recommendation Reduce “safe harbor ” requirement from 10% to 5% to provide more flexibility in meeting AYP.
AYP 3 - Summary of Recommendation Allow students identified in more than one AYP subgroup to be represented as equal fraction totaling one student.
AYP 4 - Summary of Recommendation Allow AYP goals to increase in unequal increments and different increase rates for subgroups to reach 100% proficiency.
AYP 5 - Summary of Recommendation Allow AYP measures to include gain score approaches and partial credit for meeting targets.
AYP 6 - Summary of Recommendation Allow alternate AYP measurement methods, while still using intermediate goals and reaching 100% proficiency by 2013-14.
AYP 7 - Summary of Recommendation Allow student test participation rate for AYP to range from 90% to 95%.
AYP 8 - Summary of Recommendation Allow students to be exempted from test participation rate requirements on case-by-case basis for designated reasons. 
AYP 9 - Summary of Recommendation Allow students with “unusual patterns of attendance” to be exempt from test participation rate calculation. For example, chronic truants or those with difficult life circumstances.
AYP 10 - Summary of Recommendation Assign "below basic" score to students not participating in assessments, but ineligible for exemptions.
 
AYP 11 - Summary of Recommendation Offer alternative assessments, based on IEP, to students with disabilities for AYP purposes.
AYP 12 - Summary of Recommendation Limit percentage of students with disabilities whose alternative assessment score are counted as meeting AYP to 3% of total students assessed.
AYP 13 - Summary of Recommendation

Allow students with disabilities' alternate assessments to include out of grade-level tests and base AYP on gain/growth or adjusted scores.

AYP 14 - Summary of Recommendation Allow ELL students to be counted in this subgroup for AYP up to three years after tranferring from the group.
AYP 15 - Summary of Recommendation Use higher score of students assessed more than once prior to beginning of next school year for determining AYP.
AYP 16 - Summary of Recommendation Include assessment scores for AYP purposes of students who take exams prior to year normally offered and score proficient or above.

AYP 17 - Summary of Recommendation Allow state NCLB plans to alter federal accountability framework to align with their own systems.
AYP 18 - Summary of Recommendation Require nonpublic school students receiving Title I benefits to take same assessments as public schools, with accountability and test reporting requirements.
AYP 19 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to place hold on nonpublic school Title I support if students do not make AYP and perform lower than area public schools.
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)


Abbreviation Key for Organizations
AASA = American Association of School Administrators
AFT = American Federation of Teachers
BCSA = Business Coalition for Student Achievement
Comm. NCLB = Commission on No Child Left Behind
CCSSO = Council of Chief State School Officers
ECS = Education Commission of the States
Ed Trust = Education Trust
FEA = Forum on Educational Accountability
NAESP = National Association of Elementary School Principals
NASBE = National Association of State Boards of Education
NASSP = National Association of Secondary School Principals
NCSL = National Conference of State Legislatures
NEA = National Education Association
NGA = National Governors Association
NSBA = National School Boards Association


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