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Consequences and Interventions (CI)
Summary of Recommendations
NCLB Reauthorization

To better inform the national debate on No Child Left Behind (NCLB) reauthorization, ECS collected and synthesized recommendations by national organizations to improve the federal law.

ECS' database is organized around 16 issue areas that captured most recommendations. Some organizations did not offer recommendations for all issues, at least according to our analysis. And several recommendations appear more than once since they applied to multiple issue areas.

The summary of all organizations' original recommendations for Consequences and Interventions (CI) are listed in this report. Please see the main database page for additional reports.

Highlights
(See Abbreviation Key at end of table)

Organizations that addressed this issue
: 15 of 15
AASA; AFT; BCSA; Comm. NCLB; CCSSO; ECS; Ed Trust; FEA; NAESP; NASBE; NASSP; NCSL; NEA; NGA; and NSBA

Organizations that did not address this issue: None

Comments
All organizations presented recommendations related to the consequences and interventions required under NCLB, indicating a high degree of interest and perhaps concern as well. The most common proposal was to allow states and districts to target assistance and interventions to the highest need schools and students, rather than to all those that missed adequate yearly progress (AYP) goals.

Several organizations also would allow states and districts to switch the order of consequences -- in particular, school choice and supplemental education services. Lastly, there was a call to give schools more time to implement reforms before moving to the next sanction level.


Visit ECS' Database on NCLB Reauthorization main page for more information, explanations and access to organizations' original reports. Please note that ECS plans to expand the database as more information becomes available.

Database Last Updated: July 2007

This database was created and compiled by Mary Fulton, ECS policy analyst.
For questions and comments: 303.299.3679 or mfulton@ecs.org

NCLB Reauthorization : American Association of School Administrators (AASA)
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Consequences and Interventions (CI)
CI 1 - Summary of Recommendation Focus federal funds on increasing achievement among highest-poverty students.
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : American Federation of Teachers (AFT)
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Consequences and Interventions (CI)
CI 1 - Summary of Recommendation Distinguish truly struggling schools from those that need limited assistance under AYP.
CI 2 - Summary of Recommendation Provide schools/districts resources and flexibility to implement research-based interventions.
CI 3 - Summary of Recommendation Target school interventions to students who are not proficient.
CI 4 - Summary of Recommendation Redesign schools that receive help and continue to decline need.
CI 5 - Summary of Recommendation Continue interventions for at least three years after schools exit “in need of improvement” status. 
CI 6 - Summary of Recommendation Require states to develop “learning environment index” for schools and mandate states and districts address problem areas.

CI 7 - Summary of Recommendation Ensure school interventions are research based and use appropriate remedies to improve student performance.
CI 8 - Summary of Recommendation Provide research-based supports at first sign schools are not meeting achievement targets.
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : Business Coalition for Student Achievement (BCSA)
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Consequences and Interventions (CI)
CI 1 - Summary of Recommendation Provide guidance on differentiating degree to which and reasons schools/districts miss AYP and focus resources on those with highest need.
CI 2 - Summary of Recommendation Require districts to provide parents with timely and understandable information on SES and school choice options.
CI 3 - Summary of Recommendation Target funding, assistance and effective educators to high-need schools.
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : Commission on No Child Left Behind (Comm. NCLB)
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Consequences and Interventions (CI)
CI 1 - Summary of Recommendation Increase choice options by requiring schools that make AYP to reserve 10% of seats for student transfers and districts to audit available space.
CI 2 - Summary of Recommendation Require districts unable to accommodate school transfer requests to offer SES to students.
CI 3 - Summary of Recommendation Require schools in corrective action to select comprehensive set of interventions, rather than single option presently required.
CI 4 - Summary of Recommendation Require Education Department to provide further guidance on what constitutes "any other major restructuring option."
CI 5 - Summary of Recommendation Focus on improving instruction and learning in struggling schools, rather than making district structural changes.
CI 6 - Summary of Recommendation Bolster state and district capacity to help low-performing schools by increasing Title I set aside funds and focusing restructuring on highest-need schools.
CI 7 - Summary of Recommendation Give schools full school year to implement interventions before moving to next level of consequences, and remove schools from improvement status once restructuring is implemented.
CI 8 - Summary of Recommendation Require districts to adopt comprehensive improvement plans if more than half of high schools miss AYP.
CI 9 - Summary of Recommendation Require districts to identify point of contact for parents on supplemental services and school choice.
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO)
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Consequences and Interventions (CI)
CI 1 - Summary of Recommendation Allow range of and differentiate rewards/consequences based on degree to which schools/districts miss AYP.
CI 2 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to differentiate AYP consequences, target assistance to lowest performing students/subgroups and not to escalate consequences if schools making progress.
CI 3 - Summary of Recommendation Increase SES offerings by districts and to parents, permit states to change order of consequences (choice and SES) and target SES based on academic need.
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : Education Commission of the States (ECS)
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Consequences and Interventions (CI)
CI 1 - Summary of Recommendation Ensure eligible students have access to supplemental services, interventions and safe schools as soon as possible. 
CI 2 - Summary of Recommendation Ensure low-performing school interventions are scientifically-research based.
CI 3 - Summary of Recommendation Provide incentives for non-Title I school improvement interventions.
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : Education Trust (Ed Trust)
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Consequences and Interventions (CI)
CI 1 - Summary of Recommendation Increase school improvement funding and require that 70% of these federal and state funds target schools “In Need of Comprehensive Improvement.”
CI 2 - Summary of Recommendation Require that, within three years, districts close gaps between state and local funds provided to schools “In Need of Comprehensive Improvement” and average funding for non-Title I schools.
CI 3 - Summary of Recommendation Increase school improvement set-aside to 20% (from 5%) if states match and devote the amount to increase their capacity to assist struggling schools, including contracts with non-profit providers.
CI 4 - Summary of Recommendation Create differentiated consequences for schools based on type and percentage of students that miss AYP targets. "In Need of Comprehensive Improvement” and "In Need of Focused Improvement” categories would include different requirements, timelines and sanctions.



CI 5 - Summary of Recommendation Revise current NCLB school improvement plan process and require a Comprehensive Improvement Time Line for schools that do not made AYP in overall student category or for group(s) that represent 50% or more of school enrollment.
  • Year 1: Develop comprehensive improvement plan
  • Year 2: Implement plan and report progress. Schools given flexibility with staffing and professional development
  • Year 3: Parents given priority to transfer their children from schools in need of improvement
  • Year 4: Improvement plan implementation continues
  • Year 5: Comprehensive Restructuring plan developed. The “other” choice in current law eliminated
  • Year 6: Comprehensive Restructuring plan implemented.
CI 6 - Summary of Recommendation

Revise current NCLB school improvement plan process and require a Focused Improvement Time Line for schools that do not make adequate yearly progress (AYP) for student groups representing less than 50% of enrollment.

  • Year 1: Develop a Focused Improvement plan
  • Year 2, 3 and 4: Implement Focused Improvement plan and issue annual progress reports
  • Year 5: Develop Focused Restructuring
  • Year 6: Implement Focused Restructuring plan
  • Year 7: Devote 75% of Title I funds to extended day programs for student groups that are not proficient.
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : Forum on Educational Accountability (FEA)
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Consequences and Interventions (CI)
CI 1 - Summary of Recommendation Allow improvement plans to take hold before applying sanctions; don't apply sanctions that undermine effective reform.
CI 2 - Summary of Recommendation Replace unsuccessful sanctions with effective interventions that improve student achievement.
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP)
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Consequences and Interventions (CI)
CI 1 - Summary of Recommendation Require states to reward schools that exceed improvement targets and assist those that fall short.
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : National Association of State Boards of Education (NASBE)
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Consequences and Interventions (CI)
CI 1 - Summary of Recommendation Allow range of interventions, including capacity building, and specific sanctions and rewards under AYP.
CI 2 - Summary of Recommendation Do not enforce NCLB compliance by withholding federal funding for unrelated programs.
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP)
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Consequences and Interventions (CI)
CI 1 - Summary of Recommendation Eliminate funding reductions as AYP consequence and allow fund transfers in year three of corrective action.
CI 2 - Summary of Recommendation Eliminate requirement that Title I funds be used for transportation for school improvement purposes.
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL)
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Consequences and Interventions (CI)
CI 1 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to decide order of interventions for schools “in need of improvement,” for example, offering SES before choice.
CI 2 - Summary of Recommendation Grant states flexibility when counting transfer students in receiving school’s AYP calculations, allowing more time to improve student performance.
CI 3 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to focus NCLB intervention funds on students most in need and redirect unused Title I funds for other disadvantaged student services.   

CI 4 - Summary of Recommendation Permit states to determine order of consequences for schools, especially for rural and urban schools where options may be limited.
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : National Education Association (NEA)
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Consequences and Interventions (CI)
CI 1 - Summary of Recommendation Ensure accountability systems provide and target support and assistance to schools/districts most in need of improvement.
CI 2 - Summary of Recommendation Intervene in schools that fail to improve after receiving additional resources and assistance.
CI 3 - Summary of Recommendation Allow time to implement improvement plans before applying sanctions; apply sanctions only when same subgroup fails same subject; target choice and SES to groups that fail AYP; and provide SES before school choice.

 
CI 4 - Summary of Recommendation Provide separate funding for school improvement and technical assistance programs.
CI 5 - Summary of Recommendation Apply AYP consequences to schools only when Title I is funded at authorized level.
CI 6 - Summary of Recommendation Provide separate funding stream for SES and school choice.
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : National Governors Association (NGA)
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Consequences and Interventions (CI)
CI 1 - Summary of Recommendation Offer states rewards or incentives for raising student performance and holding schools to high standards.
CI 2 - Summary of Recommendation Allow states to offer SES before providing school choice.
CI 3 - Summary of Recommendation Provide states authority, time and flexibility to assist low performing schools, and provide resources to build state capacity for these efforts.
CI 4 - Summary of Recommendation

Target Title I funds to schools with highest concentration of low-income students and assist state efforts to close achievement gaps among student subgroups.

Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)

NCLB Reauthorization : National School Boards Association (NSBA)
Capacity Building, Innovation and Research & Development (CIRD)
Consequences and Interventions (CI)
CI 1 - Summary of Recommendation Limit school transfers to low achieving students in subgroups that fail to meet AYP in same subject for two or more years.
CI 2 - Summary of Recommendation Discontinue school choice transportation financial obligations for students when their subgroup meets AYP.
CI 3 - Summary of Recommendation Offer students option to transfer to one school rather than at least two schools, as currently allowed under NCLB.
CI 4 - Summary of Recommendation Expand reasons for exempting students from being offered school transfer option to include class-size laws; overcrowding; need for mobile classrooms or building construction; and travel burdens.
CI 5 - Summary of Recommendation Allow districts to offer SES before school transfer option.
CI 6 - Summary of Recommendation Apply sanctions only when AYP is not met by “same group” for two or more consecutive years in a subject on “same indicator. ”
CI 7 - Summary of Recommendation Require districts to restructure when they fail to make AYP, based on averaging scores of all grades tested and for at least one grade span.
CI 8 - Summary of Recommendation Require restructuring only when total number of students in subgroups not scoring proficient or above exceeds 35% of school or district’s enrollment.
CI 9 - Summary of Recommendation Defer sanctions due to sudden enrollment changes within student subgroups, as well as natural disasters or financial hardships.
CI 10 - Summary of Recommendation Defer NCLB sanctions if Title I appropriations do not increase by at least $2.5 billion over previous year.
CI 11 - Summary of Recommendation Defer NCLB sanctions if appropriations for students with disabilities are not consistent with IDEA funding levels.
Parent and Community Involvement (CPI)


Abbreviation Key for Organizations
AASA = American Association of School Administrators
AFT = American Federation of Teachers
BCSA = Business Coalition for Student Achievement
Comm. NCLB = Commission on No Child Left Behind
CCSSO = Council of Chief State School Officers
ECS = Education Commission of the States
Ed Trust = Education Trust
FEA = Forum on Educational Accountability
NAESP = National Association of Elementary School Principals
NASBE = National Association of State Boards of Education
NASSP = National Association of Secondary School Principals
NCSL = National Conference of State Legislatures
NEA = National Education Association
NGA = National Governors Association
NSBA = National School Boards Association


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